软考 系统架构设计师 2009-2018年英语翻译及重点词汇

2009年原文

An architectural Style defines as a family of such systems in terms of a pattern、of structural organization.More specifically an architectural style defines a vocabulary of components and connector types, and a set of constraints on how they can be combined. For many styles there may also exist one or more semantic models that specify how to determine a system’s overall properties from the properties of its parts. Many of architectural styles have been developed over the years.The best-known examples of pipe-and-filter architectures are programs written in the Unix shell.

翻译

一种架构风格以一种结构化组织模式定义一组这样的系统。具体来说,一种架构风格定义了一个构件及连接器类型的词汇表,以及一组关于它们如何能够被关联的约束。对于许多风格来说,可能也存在一个或多个语义模型,从系统部件的特性来确定系统的整体特性。许多架构风格已经发展了很多年,众所周知的管道-过滤器架构的例子就是用UNIX shell编写的程序。

重点词汇

  1. pattern. 模式.
  2. component. 构件.
  3. constraint. 约束.
  4. semantic model. 语义模型.
  5. pope-and-filter. 管道-过滤器架构.
  6. architectural style. 架构风格
  7. specifically. 具体地.
  8. specify. 指定、确定.

2010年原文

The software architecture is a set of software components, subsystems, relationships, interactions, the properties of each of these elements, and the set of guiding principles that together constitute the fundamental properties and constraints of a software system or set of systems. Architectural pattern defines a general set of element types and their interactions. The examples include Pipes and Filters, Model-View-Controller, and Reflection.

A model in software architecture is a representation used to understand or document one or more aspects of a problem or solution. Architecture is usually used in conjunction with many adjunct terms.

The business architecture defines the key strategies, organization, goals and related processes of the enterprise.

At the enterprise level, the application architecture may be more of a set of guidelines on how the various software architectures should be constructed consistently across the enterprise.

The reference architecture, which describes the high-level set of elements involved in application from a particular domain along with their interactions, is often used to focus on subsystem definition rather than application process level definition.

翻译

软件架构中的模型是一种表现形式,用于从一个或多个方面理解或记录一个问题或解决方案。架构通常会与一些附属词结合起来使用。

业务架构定义了企业的关键策略、组织、目标和相关过程。

在企业层面,应用架构可能更多的是一组关于应该如何在整个企业一致地构建各种软件架构的指导原则。

参考架构描述了源自特定领域的应用涉及的髙层元素集合及其交互关系,通常用于关注子系统的定义而不是应用过程级别定义。

重点词汇

  1. Architectural pattern. 架构模式
  2. model. 模型
  3. business architecture. 业务架构
  4. application architecture. 应用架构
  5. reference architecture. 参考架构
  6. software architecture. 软件架构
  7. Pipes and Filters. 管道与过滤器
  8. Model-View-Controller. MVC框架,模型(model)-视图(view)-控制器(controller)
  9. Reflection. 反射机制
  10. involve. 涉及、包括
  11. interaction. 交互

2011年原文

Information systems design is defined as those tasks that focus on the specification of a detailed computer-based solution. Typically, there are four systems design tasks for in-house development.

  1. The first task is to specify an application architecture,which defines the technologies to be used by one, more, or all information systems in terms of their data, processes, interfaces, and network components. This task is accomplished by analyzing the data models and process models that are initially created during requirements analysis.

  2. The next systems design task is to develop the database design specifications. The purpose of this task is to prepare technical design specifications for a database that will be adaptable to future requirements and expansion.

  3. Once the database prototype has been built, the systems designer can work closely with system users to develop input, output and dialogue specifications. The internal controls must be specified to ensure that the outputs are not lost, misrouted, misused, or incomplete.

  4. The fourth design task involves packaging all the specifications from the previous design tasks into a set of specifications that will guide the computer programmer’s activities during the following phases of the systems development methodology.

Finally, we should reevaluate project feasibility and update the project plan accordingly. The key deliverable should include a detailed plan for the construction phase that should follow.

翻译

信息系统设计被定义为一些任务,它们主要关注一个详细的计算机解决方案的规格说明。通常来说,内部开发有四种系统设计任务。

  1. 第一项任务是确定一个应用程序架构,它以数据、过程、接口和网络组件的方式定义一个、多个或所有信息系统要使用的技术。完成这项任务需要分析最初创建于需求分析期间的数据模型和过程模型。

  2. 下一项系统设计任务是开发数据库设计的规格说明。该任务的目的是准备一个数据库技术设计规格说明,以适应将来的需求和扩展。

  3. —旦建成了数据库原型,系统设计人员能够和系统用户密切合作开发输入、输出和对话框规格说明。必须指定内部控件来确保输出不会丢失、误传、滥用或不完整。

  4. 第四项设计任务包括把之前所有设计任务的规格说明打包为一套规格说明,将在系统开发方法的后续阶段中指导计算机程序员的活动。

最后,我们应该重新评估项目可行性并相应地更新项目计划。主要交付成果将包括构建阶段应该遵循的一个详细计划。

重点词汇

  1. application architecture. 应用架构
  2. database design specifications. 数据库设计规范
  3. internal control. 内部控制
  4. computer programmer. 计算机程序员
  5. reevaluate project feasibility. 重新评估项目可行性
  6. Information system. 信息系统
  7. requirements analysis. 需求分析
  8. systems development methodology. 系统开发方法
  9. project feasibility. 项目可行性
  10. specify. 指定、确定
  11. specification. 规格
  12. involve. 涉及、包括

2012年原文

An application architecture specifies the technologies to be used to implement one or more information systems. It serves as an outline for detailed design, construction, and implementation. Given the models and details, include logical DFDs and ERD, we can distribute data and processes to create a general design of application architecture. The design will normally be constrained by architecture standards, project objectives, and the feasibility of techniques used. The first, physical DFD to be drawn is the network architecture DFD. The next step is to distribute data stores to different processors. Data partitioning and replication are two types of distributed data which most RDBMSs support. There are many distribution options used in data distribution. In the case of storing specific tables on different servers, we should record each tableas a data store on the physical DFD and connect each to the appropriate server.

翻译

应用架构说明了实现一个或多个信息系统所使用的技术,它作为详细设计、构造和实现的一个大纲。给定了包括逻辑数据流图和实体联系图在内的模型和详细资料,我们可以分配数据和过程以创建应用架构的一个概要设计。概要设计通常会受到架构标准、项目目标和所使用技术的可行性的制约。需要绘制的第一个物理数据流图是网络架构数据流图。接下来是分配数据存储到不同的处理器。数据分区和复制是大多数关系型数据库支持的两种分布式数据形式。有许多分配方法用于数据分布。在不同服务器上存储特定表的情况下,我们应该将每个表记为物理数据流图中的一个数据存储,并将每个表连接到相应的服务器。

重点词汇

  1. logical DFDs and ERD. 逻辑数据流图和实体联系图
  2. the feasibility of techniques. 技术可行性
  3. network architecture DFD. 网络架构数据流图
  4. Data partitioning and replication. 数据分配和复制
  5. storing specific tables on different servers. 在不同服务器上存储特定表
  6. application architecture. 应用架构
  7. detailed design. 详细设计
  8. general design. 概要设计
  9. feasibility of techniques. 技术可行性
  10. data stores. 数据存储
  11. RDBMS. 关系数据库管理系统,Relational Database Management System

2013年原文

A system’s architecture is a representation of a system in which there is a mapping of functionality onto hardware and software components, a mapping of the software architecture onto the hardware architecture, and a concern for the human interaction with these components. That is,system architecture is concerned with a total system, including hardware, software, and humans. Software architectural structures can be divided into three major categories, depending on the broad nature of the elements they show.

1)Module structures embody decisions as a set of code or data units that have to be constructed or procured.

2)Component-and-connector structures embody decisions as to how the system is to be structured as set of elements that have runtime behavior and interactions.

3)Allocation structures embody decisions as to how the system will relate to non software structures in its environment (such as CPUs, file systems, networks, development teams, etc.).

翻译

系统架构是一个系统的一种表示,包含了功能到软硬件构件的映射、软件架构到硬件架构的映射以及对于这些组件人机交互的关注。也就是说,系统架构关注于整个系统, 包括硬件、软件和使用者。软件架构结构根据其所展示元素的广义性质,可以被分为三个主要类别。

1)模块结构将决策体现为一组需要被构建或获取的代码或数据单元。

2)构件-连接器结构将决策体现为系统如何被结构化为一组具有运行时行为和交互的元素。

3)配置结构将决策体现为系统如何在其环境中关联到非软件结构,如CPU、文件系统、 网络、开发团队等。

重点词汇

  1. functionality. 功能 (计算机或电子系统的)
  2. software architecture. 软件架构
  3. module structures. 模块结构
  4. component-and-connector structures. 组件-连接器结构
  5. Allocation structures. 配置结构

2014年原文

Software architecture reconstruction is an interpretive, interactive, and iterative process including many activities. Information extraction involves analyzing a system’s existing design and implementation artifacts to construct a model of it. The result is used in the following activities to construct a view of the system. The database construction activity converts the elements and relations contained in the view into a standard format for storage in a database. The view fusion activity involves defining and manipulating the information stored in database to reconcile, augment, and establish connections between the elements. Reconstruction consists of two primary activities: visualization and interaction and pattern definition and recognition. The former provides a mechanism for the user to manipulate architectural elements, and the latter provides facilities for architecture reconstruction.

翻译

软件架构重构是一个解释性、交互式和反复迭代的过程,包括了多项活动。信息提取通过分析系统现有设计和实现构件来构造它的模型。其结果用于在后续活动中构造系统的视图。数据库构建活动把模型中包含的元素和关系转换为数据库中的标准存储格式。视图融合活动包括定义和操作数据库中存储的信息,理顺、加强并建立起元素之间的连接。重构由两个主要活动组成:可视化和交互记及模式定义和识别。前者提供了一种让用户操作架构元素的机制,后者则提供了用于架构重构的设施。

重点词汇

  1. Information extraction. 信息提取
  2. elements and relations. 元素和关系
  3. view fusion. 视图融合
  4. visualization and interaction. 可视化与交互
  5. pattern definition and recognition. 模式定义与识别
  6. interpretive, interactive, and iterative process. 解释性的、动态的、迭代的的过程
  7. involve. 涉及、包括
  8. artifact. 构件
  9. convert. 转换
  10. reconcile. 协调、理顺
  11. augment. 加强

2015年原文

The objective of architecture design is to determine what parts of the application software will be assigned to what hardware.The major software components of the system being developed have to be identified and then allocated to the various hardware components on which the system will operate. All software systems can be divided into four basic functions. The first is data storage. Most information systems require data to be stored and retrieved,whether a small file,such as a memo produced by a word processor,or a large database,such as one that stores an organization’s accounting records. The second function is the data access logic,the processing required to access data,which often means database queries in Structured Query Language. The third function is the application logic,which is the logic documented in the DFDs,use cases,and functional requirements.The fourth function is the presentation logic,the display of information to the user and the acceptance of the user’s commands.The three primary hardware components of a system are clients,servers,and network.

翻译

架构设计的目标是确定应用软件的哪些部分将被分配到何种硬件。识别出正在开发系统的主要软件构件并分配到系统将要运行的硬件构件。所有软件系统可分为四项基本功能。第一项是数据存储。大多数信息系统需要数据进行存储并检索,无论是一个小文件,比如一个字处理器产生的一个备忘录,还是一个大型数据库,比如存储一个企业会计记录的数据库。第二项功能是数据访问逻辑,处理过程需要访问数据,这通常是指用SQL进行数据库查询。第三项功能是应用程序逻辑,这些逻辑通过数据流图,用例和功能需求记录下来。第四项功能是表示逻辑,给用户显示信息并接收用户命令。一个系统的三类主要硬件构件是客户机、服务器和网络。

重点词汇

  1. architecture design. 架构设计
  2. data storage. 数据存储
  3. data access logic. 数据访问逻辑
  4. application logic. 应用逻辑
  5. clients,servers,and network. 客户机、服务器和网络
  6. allocate. 分配

2016年原文

The objective of architecture design is to determine what parts of the application software will be assigned to what hardware. The major software components of the system being developed have to be identified and then allocated to the various hardware components on which the system will operate. All software systems can be divided into four basic functions. The first is data storage.Most information systems require data to be stored and retrieved, whether a small file,such as a memo produced by a word processor, or a large database, such as one that stores an organization’s accounting records.The second function is the data access logic,the processing required to access data, which often means database queries in Structured Query Language. The third function is the application logic,which is the logic documented in the DFDs, use cases,and functional requirements.The fourth function is the presentation logic,the display of information to the user and the acceptance of the user’s commands.The three primary hardware components of a system are clients,servers,and network.

翻译

架构设计的目标是确定应用软件的哪些部分将被分配到何种硬件。识别出正在开发系统的主要软件构件并分配到系统将要运行的硬件构件。所有软件系统可分为四项基本功能。第一项是数据存储。大多数信息系统需要数据进行存储并检索,无论是一个小文件,比如一个字处理器产生的一个备忘录,还是一个大型数据库,比如存储一个企业会计记录的数据库。第二项功能是数据访问逻辑,处理过程需要访问数据,这通常是指用SQL进行数据库查询。第三项功能是应用程序逻辑,这些逻辑通过数据流图,用例和功能需求记录下来。第四项功能是表示逻辑,给用户显示信息并接收用户命令。一个系统的三类主要硬件构件是客户机、服务器和网络。

重点词汇

  1. architecture design. 架构设计
  2. data storage. 数据存储
  3. data access logic. 数据访问逻辑
  4. application logic. 应用逻辑
  5. clients,servers,and network. 客户机、服务器和网络
  6. allocate. 分配

2017年原文

The architecture design specifies the overall architecture and the placement of software and hardware that will be used. Architecture design is a very complex process that is often left to experienced architecture designers and consultants.

The first step is to refine the nonfunctional requirements into more detailed requirements that are then employed to help select the architecture to be used and the software components to be placed on each device. In a client-server architecture, one also has to decide whether to use a two-tier, three-tier,or n-tier architecture.

Then the requirements and the architecture design are used to develop the hardware and software specification. There are four primary types of nonfunctional requirements that can be important in designing the architecture.Operational requirements specify the operating environment(s) in which the system must perform and how those may change over time. Performance requirements focus on the nonfunctional requirements issues such as response time,capacity,and reliability. Security requirements are the abilities to protect the information system from disruption and data loss, whether caused by an intentional act. Cultural and political requirements are specific to the countries in which the system will be used.

翻译

架构设计指定了将要使用的软件和硬件的总体架构和布局。 架构设计是一个非常复杂的过程,往往留给经验丰富的架构设计师和顾问。

第一步是将非功能需求细化为更详细的需求,然后用于帮助选择要使用的体系结构以及要放置在每个设备上的软件组件。在客户端-服务器架构中,还必须决定是使用两层,三层还是n层架构。

然后使用需求和体系结构设计来开发硬件和软件规范。 有四种主要的非功能需求类型可能在设计架构时非常重要。操作需求指定系统必须执行的操作环境以及这些操作环境如何随时间变化。 性能需求注重非功能性需求是特定于系统将被使用的国家。

重点词汇

  1. nonfunctional requirements. 非功能需求
  2. client-server architecture. 客户端-服务器架构
  3. operational requirements. 操作需求
  4. performance requirements. 性能需求
  5. security requirements. 安全需求
  6. specify. 指定
  7. specification. 规范
  8. specific. 特定的

2018年原文

Designing the data storage architecture is an important activity in system design.There are two main types of data storage formats: files and databases. Files are electronic of data that have been optimized to perform a particular transaction. There are several types of files that differ in the way they are used to support an application.Master files store core information that is important to the business and , more specifically , to the application , such as order information or customer mailing information . Audit files contain static values , such as a list of valid codes or the names of cities. Typically, the list is used for validation. A database is a collection of groupings of information that are related to each other in some way. There are many different types of databases that exist on the market today. Legacy database is given to those databases which are based on older, sometimes outdated technology that is seldom used to develop new applications . Hierarchical database are collections of records that are related to each other through pointers. In relational database, referential integrity can be used in ensuring that values linking the tables together through the primary and foreign keys are valid and correctly synchronized.

翻译

设计数据存储架构是系统设计中的一项重要活动。主要有两种类型的数据存储格式:文件和数据库。文件是经过优化的可以执行特定事务的电子数据。有几种类型的文件,它们支持应用程序的方式也不同。主文件存储对业务,尤其是应用程序的重要核心信息,例如订单信息或客户邮件信息。审核文件包含静态值,例如有效代码列表或城市名称。通常,该列表用于验证。数据库是以某种方式相关联的信息分组的集合。当今市场上存在许多不同类型的数据库。遗留数据库被赋予那些基于旧的,或者过时技术的数据库,这些技术很少用于开发新的应用。分层数据库是通过指针相互关联的记录的集合。在关系数据库中,引用完整性可用于确保通过主键和外键将表链接在一起的值有效且正确同步。

重点词汇

  1. specifically. 具体地
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